1. You collect squid from the follow locations and obtain the following data: in addition, you also find high haplotype an nucleotide diversity in all population.
Kamu mengumpulkan sequen dari daerah ini dan datanya seperti yang ada dibawah:
Sebagai tambahan, kamu juga dapat menemukan keragaman haplotype yang tinggi dan nukleotidanya dalam populasi tersebut
a. Explaind what conclusions you can draw from this data.
Jelaskan kesimpulan akhir yang dapat kamu gambarkan dari data ini.
b. How would your conclusions change if you found that haplotype and nucleotide diversity werw high in the azores, but low in the remaining populations.
Bagaimana perubahan kesimpulanmu jika kamu menemukan haplotype dan nukleotida diversity tinggi pada azores, tetapi yang lainnya rendah?
c. How would your conclusions change if you found that haplotype and nucleotide diversity were low high in the azores, but high in the remaining populations
Bagaimana perubahan kesimpulanmu jika kamu menemukan haplotype dan nukleotida diversity rendah di azores dan tinggi ditempat yang lain?
2. Rank the following gwnws in terms of mutation rate : ubiquitin, mitoqondrial control region, 3’flanking region of nuclear 28s gene, mitochondrial 12s, and an intron in the enolase 1 nuclear gene.
3. The big dye you use to sequence has a mixture of deoxy-nucleotides as well as di-dioxi-nucleotides. If the deoxy-nucleotides were left out of the manufacturing process, how would this affect your sequences? Why?
4. A paper was just submitted to science for review in which result show that whales and fish are sister taxa and mammals are polyphyletic. In this study, they examined DNA sequence data from mitochondrial 16s and 12 s. because of the nearly equal presence of transitions and transversion (1:1.2 transition : transversion), they use unweighted parsimony as an optimality criterion to build a tree of major mammal groups, producing the phylogram to your right. Answer the following questions.
Sebuah paper sains baru yang menunjukan gambaran ulang yang mana menunjukan hazil bahwa pauz n ikan adalah zaudara perempuan taxa n mamalia adalah polyphyletic. dalam setudy ini , mereka menguji data susunan DNA dari mitokondria 16s n 12 s. karena kehadiran persamaan yang dekat dari transisi n transver (1:1.2 transition : transversion , mereka menggunakan unweigh parsimony sebagai sebuah kriteria optimal untuk pohon kelompok mamalia menghasilkan phylogram untuk kebenaranmu. jawablah pertaxaan berikut.
a. Based solely on the moleculer data and phylogenetic analysis, would you accept this paper? Why or why not?
berdasarkan data molekuler n analiziz phylogenetic, akankah kamu menerima paper ini? Jika iya mengapa dan mengapa tidak?
b. Would you recommend any changes in the author’s analyses? Explaind.
akankah kamu merekomendazikan perubahan laen dlm analziz penuliz? Jelazkan

5. A new species of clownfish, amphiprion freakii is found that has a unique genetic code. Although it uses the same 20 amino acids as other clownfish, it’s genetic code is remarkably based off of 4 base pair codons instead of the usual 3.
Speziez baru dari clownfish, amphiprion freakii ,di temukan memiliki sebuah kode genetik yang unik, walaupun ia menggunakan 20 asam amino sebagamana clwnfish lainx. Kode genetic ini memiliki kemajuan yaitu 4 basa dalam satu kodon padahal biasanya 3 basa.
a. How will nucleotide substitution rate differ between A. freakii and all other clownfish for both coding and non-coding gene regions? Explaind your resoning.
Bgmna prgntian dazar nkleotda akan brbda d antra A, freakii n clownfish laenx untk daerah2 gen brkode n tdk brkde?jlzkan alznmu.
b. Another new species A.reallyfrekii is found that only used 15 amino acids has a2 base pair codon. How would the substitution rate in coding genes differ in this.
Spesies baru lainnya A.reallyfrekii ditemukan hanya menggunakan 15 amino asam dan punya 2 basa setiap codon. bagaimana laju subtitusi gen pengkode dari sepsies ini dibanding spesies lainnya.
c. Considering these genetic codes based on 2,3, dan 4 codons, in which would you expect a single base pair insertion to have a more deleterious affect? Why?
Pertimbangkan kode genetik berikut berdasarkan pada kodon 2,3 n 4 basa. yang mana yang kamu kira sebuah insertion pasangan basa tggal akan mendapatkan lebih baxak pngaruh deleterious? mengapa?
6. A monogamous species undergoes a behavioral shift, that suddenly makes it polygynous. Only the biggest males control large harems of females, with whom they reproduce, while smaller males do not mate successfully. Assuming neutrality, an unchanged number of males and females, and that females can only mate once, explaind both how and why this shift in mating strategy will affect.
Zbuah zpeziez mngmouz mngalami prubhn tngkah laku yg zcra tb2 mjdkanx plygmouz.hax jantan trbzar yg mngntrol t4 tgl btina bzar, yg mrka buahi,zmntra pjantan kecil tidak mendapat pasangan. Perkirakan kenetralan tidak berubahnya jumlah jantan n betina n bahwa hanya boleh kawin 1 kali. Jelaskan bagaimana n mengapa perubahan dalam strategi kawin ini akan berpenngRUH?
a. The mutation rate laju mutazi
b. The probability of fixation of a new allele kmungknan fixaxi alel br
c. The rate of fixation of new alleles laju fixaxi dr alel br
d. The time to fixation wktu untk fixasi
7. A codominant gene has two alleles. Homozygous (AA) fish are white, homozygous (BB) fish are purple, an heterozygous fish are white with purple polka dots. You sample 100 fish and 60 fish white, 20 polkadots, and 20 purple. Show your work.
a. What are the allele frequencies of A & B? ap frquenzi dr alel A n B
b. Is this population in hardy Weinberg quilibrium? apkah populazi ini dlm?
c. What might you deduce from this? ap yg mgkn km zmpulkan dr zini?
d. If this frequency of A and B over the entire range of the species was A=0,5 and B=0,5. What would the fixation index be for this population? jk frkunzi An B niIf this frequency of A and B mlbhi kzlurhn wlayah dr zpeziez d mana A=0,5 n B=0,5.ap yg mjd index fxasi untk populazi ni?
8. What are the main strage of a PCR cycle? Relate each stage to the natural process of DNA replication that it mimics.
9. For each of the following techniques explain 1) how the technique surveys genrtic variation, 2) an advantage of surveying genetic variation with this technique (don’t use cost) and 3) adisadvantages of surveying genetic variation with this technique.
a. Allozyme
b. DNA sequencing
c. Microsatellites
10. Will it be harder to denature a double stranded DNA molecule of the sequence GAGGGCCTAGCAGCGAAC atau ATACGAATTTGCAGACTA? Why?
Molekul dobel helix DNA mana yang sulit didenaturasi 1) GAGGGCCTAGCAGCGAAC 2) ATACGAATTTGCAGACTA? Mengapa?
11. Write a question that your really wish I had asked on this test, but did not. Answer accordingly.
Tulis sebuah pertanyaan yang kamu harap saya tanyakan dalam test ini, tapi ternyata tidak saya tanyakan. Jawab sungguh2.

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